Age assignments were taken from the original publications, then updated to conform to Tedford et al. (2004) (listed below), based on the trail of information that could be followed through the literature regarding the stratigraphic position of specimens. Inasmuch as possible, actual stratigraphic context was considered in making age assignments. Tedford et al. (2004) provides the biochronologic scheme and correlation to the radiometric and magnetostratigraphic time scales that are used in the current version of the MIOMAP archival database. The reference is:

Tedford, R. H., L. B. Albright, A. D. Barnosky, I. Ferrusquia-Villafranca, R. M. Hunt, Jr., J. E. Storer, C. C. Swisher III, M. R. Voorhies, S. D. Webb, and D. P. Whistler. 2004. Mammalian biochronology of the Arikareean through Hemphillian interval (Late Oligocene through Early Pliocene epochs) p.169-231 in M. O. Woodburne (ed. ), Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic Mammals of North America: Biostratigraphy and Geochronology.

The interim version of the MIOMAP database that existed from 2000-2003 used a slightly different standard for correlations between biochronologic, magnetostratigraphic, and radiometric ages, namely:

Woodburne, M. O., and C. C. Swisher, III. 1995. Land mammal high-resolution geochronology, intercontinental overland dispersals, sea level, climate, and vicariance. SEPM Special Publication 54:335-364.

As of 2004, all entries were adjusted to conform to Tedford et al. (2004). Prior to 2004, publications based on the then-existing MIOMAP database utilized the previously accepted standard of Woodburne and Swisher (1995).






*Use of this resource in publications should be cited as:
Carrasco, M.A., B.P. Kraatz, E.B. Davis, and A.D. Barnosky. 2005. Miocene Mammal Mapping Project (MIOMAP). University of California Museum of Paleontology