We entered relevant information for more than 3700 fossil localities (see the mapping interface for the current count). The data extraction and entry involved the following:

  1. The process began with extraction of primary bibliographic references, specimen information, and locality information for the relevant time periods from Appendix I (Tertiary mammal localities) of Janis et al. (1998). Additional localities were discovered by following the paper trail from one paper’s bibliography to another, and by using the UC Berkeley library system to keep abreast of literature that appeared from 1998 through the present. To be included, taxa had to be represented by a voucher specimen, localities had to be described well enough to be geographically placed at least in a county, and a biochronologic age assignment had to be derivable from the information provided in the publication. We attempted to include all peer-reviewed publications, and also included information from a few Ph. D. Dissertations or Masters Theses that we deemed particularly critical. All information was keyed using individual localities. However, some publications only included faunal lists that aggregated taxa from numerous localities without attributing any of those taxa to specific localities. These faunas were entered as single locality entries with a note in the comment field discussing their composite nature. In other publications, some of the taxa in a faunal list were referred to specific localities while the remaining taxa were not attributed to a locality. In these instances, those localities with known taxa were entered as single locality entries. The remaining unattributed taxa were lumped together in a single locality entry (entitled “General ...“), even though those taxa may have come from one of the identified localities.
  2. The information we found by searching the primary literature was compared with the locality and taxon lists compiled by J. Alroy in the Paleobiology Database to ensure all principal localities and taxa were included (early in the project this comparison was with the North American Mammalian Paleofaunal Database, which was subsequently merged into the Paleobiology Database).
  3. We utilized information from unpublished specimens for key areas for which little published information existed (Hepburn’s Mesa, Montana; Railroad Canyon, Idaho; the state of Nevada). In most cases these specimens were from areas in which Barnosky had worked extensively and for which better identifications than had been published were available (Hepburn’s Mesa, Railroad Canyon) or for which primary field notes and examination of key specimens was possible (Nevada). The unpublished specimens included in the database reside in the University of California Museum of Paleontology (for Nevada and the Railroad Canyon area), the American Museum of Natural History and University of Montana (for Railroad Canyon), and the Carnegie Museum of Natural History (for Railroad Canyon and the Hepburn’s Mesa Formation). Unpublished specimen counts were also included for a few localities by surveying museum online databases. These included the online resources of the American Museum of Natural History (for the Sheep Creek, Olcott, and Snake Creek Formations, Nenzel Quarry and Timm Ranch Site, Nebraska; Wikieup, Arizona; and the San Juan and Rak Camel quarries, New Mexico) and the University of California Museum of Paleontology (Johnson Canyon and Little Dike Locality, Oregon; Tecuya Canyon, California).
  4. We coded and entered the information extracted from the literature or collections in a standard way as specified in the MIOMAP data tables.

All items in the database contain entries in the Locality Table, Faunal Table, Relative Age Table, Reference Table, and Electronic Bibliography. It was not always possible to fill all of the data fields in these or the other tables, but as much information as was available from the published literature was utilized. Blank fields in the data tables mean that the information is not available from the published literature.

Use of this resource in publications should be cited as:
Carrasco, M.A., B.P. Kraatz, E.B. Davis, and A.D. Barnosky. 2005. Miocene Mammal Mapping Project (MIOMAP). University of California Museum of Paleontology