Blue Nile Fossil Gallery

Chondrichthyes - Hybodontidea

Hybodontid teeth

Teeth of an unusual hybodontid, Besola locality. Striations visible on both sides of the enamel with one to two lateral cusps present.


Fish scales

Ganoid scales of Lepidotes sp. are commonly found as float throughout the Mugher Mudstone.

Dipnoi - Ceratodontidae

Lungfish tooth plates

Dipnoan lungfish tooth plates referred to Neoceratodus africanus Haug 1905, Aleltu Quarry and Jema North. The smaller toothplate may represent a juvenile.

Assorted scales and bones

Assorted dermal fish scales, possibly Dipnoan, and a lungfish skull plate, Mugher Mudstone, Jema North


Thin turtle shell fragments

(A) Costal of a smooth, "thin-shelled" turtle (genus indet.), Besola. (B-E) Plastron fragments from Butoro; (B) peripheral or epiplastron, (C) peripheral, (D) neural, (E) plastron fragment.

Thick turtle shell fragments

Turtle shell fragments of the "thick-scaled" morphotype; (A) ziphiplastron, (B) 1st neural, (C-E) neural, (F) hyo- or hypoplastron, (G) peripheral fragment, (H) peripheral, (I-J) bridge peripheral series.


Crocodilian scutes

Two crocodilian taxa (genus indet.) are confirmed based on scute morphology. The larger, deeply pitted scutes range from 1 - 2 cm thick.

Limb bones

Fragmentary limb bones from an associated crocodilian, Mugher Mudstone, Aleltu; (A) distal radius, (B) distal tibia, (C) proximal humerus, (D) distal humerus.

Large crocodilian teeth

Both large and small crocodilian teeth are common as float. A larger, robust, conical tooth with a prominent enamel ridge is known from Jema North. . .

Small crocodilian teeth

. . . while a smaller, striated, curved tooth is found at Jema, Aleltu, and Butoro.

Crocodylia - Mesosuchia

Mesosuchian cranial fragments

Fragmentary cranial bones of a large mesosuchian, possibly dyrosaurid, Jema North; (A) partial left frontal, (B) squamosal fragment, (C) splenial fragment.

Tail bones

Strongly amphicoelous caudal vertebrae are further evidence for the presence of mesosuchians in the Mugher Mudstone.

Dinosauria - Saurischia

Dinosaur teeth

Two dinosaur teeth confirm the first record of theropods from Ethiopia. Both teeth are from the Mugher Mudstone, Jema North; (A) tooth fragment, cf. Allosaurus, (B) a smaller, blade-shaped tooth.