The atmosphere is in constant motion on scales ranging from local
gusts to wind belts that encircle the globe.
Hot air rises.
As air rises, air pressure at the surface is lowered. Rising
air expands and cools (adiabatic cooling: that is, it cools due
to change in volume as opposed to adding or taking away of heat).
The result is condensation/precipitation.
Cold air sinks.
Sinking air compresses and heats. As air sinks, air pressure
at the surface is raised. Cold air holds less moisture than warm.
Air travels from high to low pressure, creating wind.
If the Earth did not rotate, what would wind patterns look like?
Just like convection currents with air rising at the equator
and sinking at the poles. However, the real wind patterns are
broken into several convection cells due to the Coriolis effects.
So on a rotating Earth, wind is controlled by: