Lindberg, D. R. and B. L. Matzen. 2004.  Anna Meyer and the distinction between grades and clades in early models of gastropod evolution. Invertebrate Biology 123(3):212-217



Abstract. Anna Meyer published her first (and apparently last) scientific paper in 1913, in which she reported, in part, on the organization of the renogenital systems in the ‘‘Diotocardia’’ and ‘‘Monotocardia’’ and the evolutionary signal present in this character suite. Meyer’s phylogeny broke with conventional wisdom of her time and she reconstructed early gastropod evolution as a sequence of branching events rather than a continuous grade.  Her phylogeny was ignored because it did not correspond to the well-ordered grades that came to dominate gastropod systematics for over 75 years, but her schematics of renogenital configurations have been featured in the literature for over 55 years, sometimes without citation and redrawn to show a different set of relationships. We hope that the translation of her paper from German into English will make her contribution more accessible to workers. 

Download English translation of Meyer, A. 1913. Das Renogenitalsystem von Puncturella noachina L. Biologisches Centralblatt. 33(9):564-576.