IDENTIFICATION INFORMATION:


Miocene Mammal Mapping Project (MIOMAP)

Metadata:        

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Identification_Information: RETURN TO TOP

Citation:

The MIOMAP database should be cited as follows: Carrasco, M. A., B.P. Kraatz, E. B. Davis, and A. D. Barnosky. 2005. Miocene Mammal Mapping Project (MIOMAP). University of California Museum of Paleontology http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/miomap/.

Citation_Information:

Originator: Anthony D. Barnosky

Originator: Marc A. Carrasco

Originator: Brian P. Kraatz

Originator: Edward B. Davis

Funding: National Science Foundation EAR 9909353, 0310221

Funding: National Science Foundation Minority Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program

Funding: University of California Museum of Paleontology

Publication_Date: 20050101 (January 1, 2005)

Title: Miocene Mammal Mapping Project (MIOMAP)

Geopatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Online, interactive maps and database

Publication_Information:

Publication Place: Berkeley, CA 94720

Publisher: Museum of Paleontology, University of California (published online)

Online_linkage: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/miomap/

Description:

            Abstract:

The primary data are published occurrences of mammals of late Oligocene (Arikareean) through Miocene (Hemphillian) age in the United States. For each species occurrence, the following data were entered: taxonomic name (as of 2004), latitude and longitude, land-mammal age, geological occurrence, and taphonomic information as specified at http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/miomap/about/datastructure.html.

Data entry began in 2000 and was completed in 2008. Since then, periodic updates have been made to the database and continue today. For use in research applications, the complete or partial database can be downloaded from http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/miomap/. Users should update the database as appropriate for their purposes, and cite the MIOMAP project as noted above in publications.

            Purpose:

The principal reason for which the database was produced was to conduct research on how major disruptions to the physical environment affected species richness, evolutionary patterns, and biogeographic patterns in mammals from approximately 30 million to 5 million years ago (Arikareean through Hemphillian Land-Mammal Ages). The perturbations of most interest were middle Miocene tectonism in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Basin, and the climatic warming events of the late Oligocene and mid-Miocene climatic optimum. A major goal was to understand whether biotic change was effected more by climatic events or tectonic events on the hundreds-of-thousands to million-year timescale. The MIOMAP database parallels the FAUNMAP structure to facilitate analyses that would require both databases. Additional background is available at: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/miomap/about/index.html.

Supplemental_Information:

M. A. Carrasco extracted the data from the literature and entered it for most of the states. For the states of Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, data was originally compiled by A. D. Barnosky; checked, added to, and entered by Sabrina Minter and B. P. Kraatz; and updated by A. D. Barnosky and M. A. Carrasco. The Nevada portion of the database was developed by E. B. Davis and M.A. Carrasco. A. D. Barnosky coordinated all aspects of the project and developed the web site prototype. Colleen Whitney at University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) and John Deck at the Berkeley Natural History Museums (BNHM) provided technical assistance during development of the database. UCMP hosts the MIOMAP Web site and provides ongoing support for the Web site and the database. BNHM provided and supports the mapping application, which was developed by John Deck and extended and customized for MIOMAP by Edward Davis. The BNMH hosts the mySQL database and PHP scripts, which were developed by Brian Kraatz. Imaging of type specimens was by Brian Kraatz, Alan Shabel , A. D. Barnosky, and Kacey Ballard and benefited from integration with the CalPhotos/Digital Library Project. See Process Steps for details.

Time_Period_of_Content:

Time_Period_Information: The content covers the time range of Arikareean (ca. 30 million years ago) through Hemphillian (ca. 5 million years ago) North American Land-mammal Age.

Range_of_Dates/Times:

Beginning Date: For data entry, 20000101 (January 1, 2000)

Ending Date: For data entry, 20090101 (January 1, 2009)

Currentness_Reference: The Range of Dates/Times indicates when the data were compiled and entered.

Status:

Progress: Complete as of December 31, 2004

Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: Occasional updates and corrections occur as needed and as funding permits.

Spatial_Domain:

Description_of_Geographic_Extent: The contiguous 48 states of the United States

Bounding_Coordinates:

West_Bounding_Coordinate: -125.0

East_Bounding_Coordinate: -74.0

North_Bounding_Coordinate: 48.0

South_Bounding_Coordinate: 27.0

Keywords:

Theme:

Theme_Keyword: Mammal

Theme_Keyword: Fossil

Place:

Place_Keyword: United States

Place_Keyword: Alabama

Place_Keyword: Arizona

Place_Keyword: California

Place_Keyword: Colorado

Place_Keyword: Delaware

Place_Keyword: Florida

Place_Keyword: Georgia

Place_Keyword: Idaho

Place_Keyword: Indiana

Place_Keyword: Kansas

Place_Keyword: Louisiana

Place_Keyword: Maryland

Place_Keyword: Montana

Place_Keyword: Nebraska

Place_Keyword: Nevada

Place_Keyword: New Jersey

Place_Keyword: New Mexico

Place_Keyword: North Carolina

Place_Keyword: North Dakota

Place_Keyword: Oklahoma

Place_Keyword: Oregon

Place_Keyword: South Carolina

Place_Keyword: South Dakota

Place_Keyword: Tennessee

Place_Keyword: Texas

Place_Keyword: Utah

Place_Keyword: Virginia

Place_Keyword: Washington

Place_Keyword: Wyoming

Stratum:

Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None

Stratum_Keyword: Geological

Stratum_Keyword: Fossil

Temporal:

Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: Tedford, R. H., L. B. Albright III, A. D. Barnosky, I. Ferrusquia-Villafranca, R. M. Hunt, Jr., J. E. Storer, C. C. Swisher III, M. R. Voorhies, S. D. Webb, and D. P. Whistler. 2004. Mammalian biochronology of the Arikareean through Hemphillian interval (Late Oligocene through Early Pliocene epochs), p. 169-231 in M. O. Woodburne (ed.), Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic Mammals of North America: Biostratigraphy and Geochronology. Columbia University Press, New York.

Temporal_Keyword: Arikareean

Temporal_Keyword: Hemingfordian

Temporal_Keyword: Barstovian

Temporal_Keyword: Clarendonian

Temporal_Keyword: Hemphillian

Temporal_Keyword: Oligocene

Temporal_Keyword: Miocene

Temporal Keyword: Pliocene

Temporal_Keyword: Cenozoic

Temporal_Keyword: Neogene

Access_Constraints: None.

Use_Constraints:

Use of this data for commercial purposes is prohibited. This data should be used in a manner consistent with its accuracy and precision. In most cases locations were obtained from published information that required interpolation into latitude and longitude from section, range, and township, or even less exact specifications. Therefore most locations should be regarded as approximate. MNI and NISP information, depositional data (i.e., depositional system, environment, and facies), and taphonomic attributes (i.e., recovery methods, agent of accumulation, and mixing) reflect only what could be extracted from published literature in most cases. This results in incomplete knowledge of these data for most localities. Analyses that employ this information should account for this and other biases inherent in fossil data. In addition, all relative ages provided are best estimates based primarily on the Tedford et al. (2004) publication and therefore will need to be updated in accordance with any future changes in the biochronologic timescale.

Point_of_Contact:

Contact_Information:

Contact_Organization_Primary:

Contact_Organization: Museum of Paleontology, University of California

Contact_Person: Anthony D. Barnosky, Marc A. Carrasco

Contact_Address:

Address_Type: Mailing Address

Address: Department of Integrative Biology

Address: University of California

City: Berkeley

State_or_Province: California

Postal_Code: 94720

Country: USA

Contact_Voice_Telephone: (510) 643-6275 (Barnosky)

Contact_Voice_Telephone: (510) 643-6275 (Carrasco)

Contact_Facsimile_Telephone (510) 643-6275

Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: barnosky@berkeley.edu (Barnosky)

Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: carrasco@berkeley.edu (Carrasco)

Hours_of_Service: 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Monday through Friday

Browse Graphic:

Browse_Graphic_File_Description: Fossil localities

Browse_Graphic_File_Type: PHP, PNG

Security_Information:

Security_Classification_System: None

Native_Data_Set_Environment:

Windows XP, MySQL. The mapping application was created by John Deck to display maps based on Berkeley Natural History Museums specimen metadata.

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Data_Quality_Information:  RETURN TO TOP

Attribute_Accuracy:

Attribute_Accuracy_Report:

Latitudes and longitudes are those interpolated from the publications that reported the fossil sites. In most cases these are not exact. Rarely were latitudes and longitudes reported, especially in older literature. Commonly geographic positions were given in section, township and range. These coordinates were converted to latitude and longitude by using the conversion routines at www.esg.montana.edu/gl/trs-data.html or www.topozone.com (now www.trails.com) and then plotted at www.topozone.com. In some cases only a map and/or geographic description were given in publications; these localities were assigned a latitude and longitude that corresponded with the geographic description, thus are only approximations of where the true locality lies, and in the worst cases are plotted at the center of the county in which they occur. Color coding showing the accuracy of sites is available on the interactive maps. Accuracy is expressed as EXACT if the latitude and longitude were reported; as USGS Township if the latitude and longitude was inferred from a section/township/range description; as QUAD PRECISE if the locality description allowed precise placement on a USGS quadrangle map (usually 7.5’); as QUAD APPROX if the description allowed placement on a portion of the map but was not detailed enough for precise placement; and as COUNTY CENTER if the locality information was so lacking that the best resolution was placing it in a certain county. In general, EXACT and USGS Township implies that the locality is within a 1 km radius of the latitude and longitude in the database, QUAD PRECISE within a 5 km radius, QUAD APPROX within a 10 km radius, and COUNTY CENTER within a county. As of 2004 the Landsat images used in the map interface and provided by the JPL WMS service have an offset of 100-200 meters worldwide. JPL was working to fix this but it is unknown when the fix will be completed.

Logical_Consistency_Report:

All information was extracted from publications in a standard way using the data attributes, tables, and codes specified at http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/miomap/about/datastructure.html and http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/miomap/about/lookuptables2.html

Completeness_Report:

For each publication, inasmuch as much as was possible, all of the information to fill the fields of the data tables was extracted (see URLs in the Logical Consistency Report). In order for an occurrence to be included in the database, at least a taxon name, voucher specimen in a museum, locality name, geographic description of the locality, and biochronologic age assessment had to be published in a peer-reviewed publication, a Ph. D. Dissertation or a Masters Thesis that we deemed particularly critical, or available from unpublished museum collections that Barnosky had extensive experience with (Hepburn¹s Mesa, Montana, and Railroad Canyon, Idaho) or for which we had access to primary field notes (several Nevada localities). All items in the database therefore contain entries in the Locality Table, Faunal Table, Relative Age Table, Reference Table, and Electronic Bibliography. It was not always possible to fill all of the data fields in these or the other tables (http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/miomap/about/datastructure.html), but as much information as was available from the published literature was utilized. Blank fields in the data tables mean that the information is not available from the published literature.

Positional_Accuracy:

Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:

            Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:

A representative number of localities were verified on the map plots to ensure that major positional errors were not present. The positions are those inferred from our reading of the primary literature (see Attribute Accuracy) and have not been ground-truthed.

Lineage:

Source_Information: Paleontological and Geological Occurrences

Source_Citation:

Citation_Information:

Originator: Various, see Online Bibliography

Publication_Date: Various, see Online Bibliography

Title: Various, see Online Bibliography

Geospatial_Presentation_Form: Written descriptions or sketch maps, see Online Bibliography

Publication_Information: Various, see Online Bibliography

Other_Citation_Details: Various, see Online Bibliography

Online_Linkage: Online Bibliography

Source_Scale_Denominator: Various, see Online Bibliography

Type_of_Source_Media: Paper publications.

Source_Time_Period_of_Content: ~1860 to 2009, see Online Bibliography

Time_Period_Information:

Single_Date?Time

Calendar_Date:

Source_Currentness_Reference: Publication Date, see Online Bibliography

Source_Contribution:

Provided the raw locality data, geological information, taphonomic information, and biochronologic information, that was entered into the database.

Source_Information: Initial Taxonomic and Biochronologic Standard for Ungulates and Carnivores

Source_Citation:

Citation_Information:

Originator: Janis, C. M., K. M. Scott, and L. L. Jacobs (eds.)

Publication_Date: 1998

Title: Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America

Geospatial_Presentation_Form: Written descriptions

Publication_Information: Cambridge University Press, New York

Other_Citation_Details: None

Online_Linkage: None

Source_Scale_Denominator: N/A

Type_of_Source_Media: Published Paper

Source_Time_Period_of_Content

Time_Period_Information:

Single _Date_Time

Calendar_Date:

Source_Currentness_Reference: Publication Date

Source_Contribution: Genus and species names, and biochronologic occurrences from earlier papers were updated to conform to this reference; if a later publication up to 2009 superceded the taxonomy or biochronology used in the Janis et al. volume, the more recent taxonomy or biochronology was used. In general, all oreodont taxonomy in the database followed Lander (1998 in the Janis et al. volume), because of the considerable uncertainty that exists (even subsequent to 1998) for naming taxa this group.

Source Information: Initial Taxonomic Standard for Rodentia

Source Citation:

Citation Information:

Originator: Korth, W. W.

Publication Date: 1994

Title: The Tertiary Record of Rodents in North America

Geospatial Presentation Form: Written descriptions

Publication Information: Plenum Press, New York

Other Citiation Details: None

Online Linkage: None

Source Scale Denominator: N/A

Type of Source Media: Published Paper

Source_Time_Period_of_Content

Time_Period_Information:

Single _Date_Time

Calendar_Date:

Source_Currentness_Reference: Publication Date

Source_Contribution: Genus and species names of rodent taxa were updated to conform to this reference; if a later publication up to 2009 superceded the taxonomy used in the Korth book, the more recent taxonomy was used.

Source_Information: Standard for Higher Taxa

Source_Citation:

Citation_Information:

Originator: McKenna, M. C. and S. K. Bell

Publication_Date: 1997

Title: Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level

Geospatial_Presentation_Form: Written descriptions

Publication_Information: Columbia University Press, New York

Other_Citation_Details: None

Online_Linkage: None

Source_Scale_Denominator: N/A

Type_of_Source_Media: Published Paper

Source_Time_Period_of_Content

Time_Period_Information:

Single_Date/Time:

Calendar_Date:

Source_Currentness_Reference: Publication_Date

Source_Contribution: This reference was used as the initial taxonomic standard above the species level; when more recent literature (through 2009) provided updates, the more recent designation was used.

Source_Information: Biochronologic Standard

Source_Citation:

Citation_Information:

Originator: Tedford, R. H., L. B. Albright III, A. D. Barnosky, I. Ferrusquia-Villafranca, R. M. Hunt, Jr., J. E. Storer, C. C. Swisher III, M. R. Voorhies, S. D. Webb, and D. P. Whistler.

Publication_Date: 2004

Title: Mammalian biochronology of the Arikareean through Hemphillian interval (Late Oligocene through Early Pliocene epochs), p. 169-231 in M. O. Woodburne (ed.), Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic Mammals of North America: Biostratigraphy and Geochronology.

Geospatial_Presentation_Form: Written descriptions

Publication_Information: Columbia University Press, New York

Other_Citation_Details: None

Online_Linkage: None

Source_Scale_Denominator: N/A

Type_of_Source_Media: Published Paper

Source_Time_Period_of_Content

Time_Period_Information:

Single _Date_Time

Calendar_Date:

Source_Currentness_Reference: Publication_Date

Source_Contribution: This reference provides the biochronologic scheme and correlation to the radiometric and magnetostratigraphic time scales that are used in the current version of the MIOMAP archival database. Before 2004, publications that used the MIOMAP database followed slightly different conventions listed at http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/miomap/about/lookuptables2.html.

Source_Information: Biochronologic Standard

Source_Citation:

Citation_Information:

Originator: Woodburne, M. O. and C. C. Swisher III

Publication_Date: 1995

Title: Land mammal high-resolution geochronology, intercontinental overland dispersals, sea level, climate, and vicariance

Geospatial_Presentation_Form: Written descriptions

Publication_Information: SEPM Special Publication 54: 335-364.

Other_Citation_Details: None

Online_Linkage: None

Source_Scale_Denominator: N/A

Type_of_Source_Media: Published Paper

Source_Time_Period_of_Content

Time_Period_Information:

Single _Date_Time

Calendar_Date:

Source_Currentness_Reference: Publication_Date

Source_Contribution: This reference was used as a standard for correlations between biochronologic, magnetostratigraphic, and radiometric scales in an interim version of the MIOMAP database that existed before 2004. As of 2009, all entries were adjusted to conform to Tedford et al. (2004). Before 2004, publications that used MIOMAP data used an earlier version of the database, which considered the correlations as listed at http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/miomap/about/lookuptables2.html.

Source_Information: Online Mapping Capabilities

Source_Citation:

Citation_Information:

Originator: Deck, John

Publication_Date: 2009

Title: Berkeley Natural History Museums (BNHM) Online Maps

Geospatial_Presentation_Form: Online Maps

Publication_Information: http://bnhmmaps.berkeley.edu/

Other_Citation_Details: None

Online_Linkage: http://bnhmmaps.berkeley.edu/

Source_Scale_Denominator: Various, see Online Bibliography

Type_of_Source_Media: Web server

Source_Time_Period_of_Content: 2009

Time_Period_Information:

Single _Date_Time

Calendar_Date:

Source_Currentness_Reference: Publication_Date

Source_Contribution: Provides the map interface to serve the MIOMAP database. The BNHM Online Map server uses open source PHP MapScript 4.0 to access mySQL databases and dynamically create georeferenced shapefiles based upon locality data in those databases. These shapefiles are displayed as .png graphics using the open source CGI MapServer 4.0. The .png maps can be browsed using both a Java application for drawing queries directly on the map and by changing options in an html form. Scales of display range from global views to views on the order of square kilometers. Data can be displayed on a variety of basemaps, most of which are dynamically added from other Web Mapping Services. Maps are projected in geographic coordinates.

Process_Step:

Process_Description:

We entered relevant information for more than 3700 fossil localities, as specified in the Completeness Report. The data extraction and entry steps involved the following steps. (1) Extraction of primary bibliographic references, specimen information, and locality information for the relevant time periods from Appendix I (Tertiary mammal localities) of Janis et al. (1998). Additional localities were discovered by following the paper trail from one paper’s bibliography to another, and by using the UC Berkeley library system to keep abreast of literature that appeared from 1998-2009. To be included, taxa had to be represented by a voucher specimen, localities had to be described well enough to be geographically placed at least in a county, and a biochronologic age assignment had to be derivable from the information provided in the publication. We attempted to include all peer-reviewed publications, and also included information from a few Ph. D. Dissertations or Masters Theses that we deemed particularly critical. All information was keyed using individual localities. However, some publications only included faunal lists that aggregated taxa from numerous localities without attributing any of those taxa to specific localities. These faunas were entered as single locality entries with a note in the comment field discussing their composite nature. In other publications, some of the taxa in a faunal list were referred to specific localities while the remaining taxa were not attributed to a locality. In these instances, those localities with known taxa were entered as single locality entries. The remaining unattributed taxa were lumped together in a single locality entry (entitled “General . . . “), even though those taxa may have come from one of the identified localities. (2) The information we found by searching the primary literature was compared with the locality and taxon lists compiled by J. Alroy in the Paleobiology Database to ensure all principal localities and taxa were included. (Early in the project this comparison was with the North American Mammalian Paleofaunal Database, which was subsequently merged into the Paleobiology Database). (3) We utilized information from unpublished specimens for key areas for which little published information existed (Hepburn¹s Mesa, Montana, Railroad Canyon, Idaho, the state of Nevada). In most cases these specimens were from areas in which Barnosky had worked extensively and for which better identifications than had been published were available (Hepburn¹s Mesa, Railroad Canyon) or for which primary field notes and examination of key specimens was possible (Nevada). The unpublished specimens included in the database reside in the University of California Museum of Paleontology (for Nevada; the Railroad Canyon area, Idaho;), the American Museum of Natural History and University of Montana (for Railroad Canyon), and the Carnegie Museum of Natural History (for Railroad Canyon and the Hepburn¹s Mesa Formation, Montana). Unpublished specimen counts were also included for a few localities by surveying museum online databases. These included the online resources of the American Museum of Natural History (for the Sheep Creek, Olcott, and Snake Creek Formations, Nenzel Quarry and Timm Ranch Site, Nebraska; Wikieup, Arizona; and the San Juan and Rak Camel quarries, New Mexico) and the University of California Museum of Paleontology (Johnson Canyon and Little Dike Locality, Oregon; Tecuya Canyon, California). (4) We coded and entered the information extracted from the literature or collections in a standard way as specified in MIOMAP data tables http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/miomap/about/lookuptables.html.

Process_Date: 20090101 (January 1, 2009)

Process_Step:

Process_Description:

Taxonomic assignments were updated according to published literature as of 2009, with the general standards being Janis et al. (1998), Korth (1994), and McKenna and Bell (1997) See Source Information for Details.

Process_Date: 20090101 (January 1, 2009)

Process_Step:

Process_Description:

Age assignments were taken from the original publications, then updated to conform to Tedford et al. (2004), based on the trail of information that could be followed through the literature regarding the stratigraphic position of specimens. Prior to 2004, publications based on the then-existing MIOMAP database utilized a previously accepted standard (Woodburne and Swisher, 1995)‹see Source Information and the online data structure for details.

Process_Date: 20090101 (January 1, 2009)

Process_Step:

Process_Description:

In general, data acquisition proceeded state-by-state, with the following protocol for each state. For states not listed below, no data was entered.

Alabama: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco in 2006.

Arizona: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco from 2003-2005; updates by M. A. Carrasco in 2008.

California: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco from 1999-2008.

Colorado: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco from 2003-2005.

Delaware: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco in 2006.

Florida: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco from 2006-2008.

Georgia: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco from 2006-2007.

Idaho: Initial taxon lists compiled by A. D. Barnosky in 2000; updates and data entry by S. Minter in 2001 and M. A. Carrasco from 2000-2005; updates by A. D. Barnosky and M. A. Carrasco in 2004. Utilizes unpublished specimens from the Railroad Canyon area that reside in the University of California Museum of Paleontology, University of Montana Department of Geology, and American Museum of Natural History.

Indiana: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco in 2006.

Kansas: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco from 2001-2008.

Louisiana: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco in 2006.

Maryland: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco in 2006.

Montana: Initial data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco in 1999 and 2000; taxon lists compiled by A. D. Barnosky in 2000; updates and data entry by S. Minter in 2001 and M. A. Carrasco from 2004-2006. Utilizes unpublished specimens from Hepburn’s Mesa, Montana. These specimens were identified by Barnosky and graduate students (S. S. B. Hopkins for aplontids and mylagaulids; B. Kraatz for lagomorphs) and reside in Carnegie Museum of Natural History.

Nebraska: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco from 1999-2008.

Nevada: Data extracted and entered by E. B. Davis from 2002-2004 and M. A. Carrasco from 2004-2008. Utilizes unpublished information from University of California Museum of Paleontology collections. Unpublished information was included from the following localities: UCMP 1063 Lat/Long; 1064 NISP; 1065 NISP; 1083 Lat/Long, NISP; 1085 NISP; 1088 Lat/Long; 1089 NISP; 1090 NISP; 1091 NISP; 1093 NISP; 1094 NISP; 1095 NISP; 1096 NISP; 1097 Lat/Long, NISP; 1098 NISP; 1100 Lat/Long, NISP; 1101 Lat/Long, NISP; 1103 Lat/Long; 1104 Lat/Long; 1105 Lat/Long; 1106 Lat/Long; 1976 Lat/Long; 1980 Lat/Long; 1984 Lat/Long; 1988 Lat/Long; 2025 Lat/Long; 2026 Lat/Long; 2027 Lat/Long; 2028 Lat/Long; 2032 Lat/Long; 2739 NISP; 2741 NISP; 2743 NISP; 2744 NISP; 2747 NISP; 3351 NISP; 3547 Lat/Long; 3548 Lat/Long; 3550 Lat/Long; 3603 Lat/Long, NISP; V2804 NISP; V5511 Lat/Long; V5915 Lat/Long; V6020 Lat/Long; V65246 Lat/Long; V6571 NISP; V69114 Lat/Long; V73117 Lat/Long; V74026 Lat/Long; V95002 Lat/Long; V95003 Lat/Long; V95004 Lat/Long; V95005 Lat/Long; and V95006 Lat/Long.

New Jersey: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco in 2006.

New Mexico: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco from 2004-2008.

North Carolina: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco in 2006.

North Dakota: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco in 2001 and 2004.

Oklahoma: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco from 2003-2006.

Oregon: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco from 1999-2005.

South Carolina: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco in 2006.

South Dakota: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco from 1999-2008.

Tennessee: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco in 2006.

Texas: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco from 2003-2008.

Utah: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco in 2003.

Virginia: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco in 2006.

Washington: All data extracted and entered by M. A. Carrasco from 2000-2005.

Wyoming: Initial taxon lists compiled by A. D. Barnosky in 1999-2000; updates and data entry by S. Minter in 2001. Updates, addition of localities, and data verification by B. Kraatz in 2001 and M. A. Carrasco in 1999 and from 2003-2008.

Process_Date: 20090101 (January 1, 2009)

Process_Step:

Process_Description:

The database was initially compiled on IBM-compatible computers (Windows XP) in Paradox 9.0, with the data distributed through nine data tables linked by an arbitrarily assigned machine number. The nine data tables are: Locality Table, Absolute Age Table, Relative Age Table, Deposit Table, Agent of Accumulation Table, Reference Table, Electronic Bibliography, Faunal Comment Table, Faunal Table. See http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/miomap/about/datastructure.html for the general relationship between the tables, and the links from that URL for a detailed description of the fields within each table.The Paradox tables were then slightly restructured to optimize the the database for web interface. This involved joining several of the Paradox tables into one table and adding fields used as reference points among tables for processing web queries (details available online). The Paradox tables that are left after the joining are: Locality, Faunal, Refer, Comment, and Absolute. Once the Paradox tables were restructured, the data were exported into tab-delimited text files which were then uploaded into mySQL tables that mirror the structure of the revised Paradox tables. The resulting mySQL database is housed on a Berkeley Natural History Museum server. As the revised Paradox tables were uploaded into mySQL, several error-checking scripts were run to help ensure that the data did not contain errors .The mySQL tables are served from and supported by the Berkeley Natural History Museums. Also served and supported by the BNHM are all the html and php documents that allow the mySQL database to be queried via the Internet. All the web scripts are written in php. These scripts collect form data from users’ browsers, send that information to the server, connects to the mySQL database, conducts queries, and returns results to the users’ browser. Colleen Whitney of the University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) and John Deck (BNHM) provided technical instruction and support. Brian Kraatz converted the Paradox tables to mySQL and developed the web-search interfaces.

Process_Date: 20090101 (January 1, 2009)

Process_Step:

Process_Description:

The map interface was developed by John Deck to display maps based on Berkeley Natural History Museums specimen metadata. Deck’s map interface was adapted by E. B. Davis to display the MIOMAP data. The relevant steps were as follows. Latitude and Longitude data from the MIOMAP database were transformed from degrees-minutes-seconds to decimal degreees using a simple script in MS Excel, and added to the Paradox tables. The BNHM Online Mapping Application was modified to match the queries and mySQL database structure that B.P. Kraatz created. In this way, it can dynamically generate shapefiles and .png map graphics based on the decimal degree latitude and longitude data from the MIOMAP database. Additionally, the BNHM Online Mapping Application display was optimized for viewing of MIOMAP data, including the display of uncertainty data.

Process_Date: 20090101 (January 1, 2009)

Process_Step:

Process_Description:

Miocene type specimens of mammals in the University of California Museum were digitally photographed in views that show diagnostic features. Photographers included Brian Kraatz, Alan Shabel, Anthony Barnosky, and Kacey Ballard. Diagnoses and other relevant information were scanned from the publications that defined the taxa, and in some cases the original specimen labels were scanned. Images were posted through the CalPhotos/Digital Library Project and are available online through the MIOMAP Images page.

Process_Date: 20090101 (January 1, 2009)

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Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:  RETURN TO TOP

Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Vector

Point_and_Vector_Object_Information:

SDTS_Terms_Description:

SDTS_Point_and_Vector_Object_Type: Entity point

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Spatial_Reference_Information:  RETURN TO TOP

Horizontal Coordinate_System Definition:

Geographic:

Latitude_Resolution: Variable, see Attribute Accuracy

Longitude_Resolution: Variable, see Attribute Accuracy

Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Decimal degrees

Geodetic Model:

Horizontal_Datum_Name: NAD27 for map interface. Coordinates estimated from www.topozone.com (now www.trails.com) using the NAD83 convention of that database.

Ellipsoid_Name: Clarke 1866

Semi-major_Axis: 6378206

Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 295

Map_Projection:

Map_Projection_Name: Geographic projection

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Entity_and_Attribute_Information:  RETURN TO TOP

Overview_Description:

Entity and Attribute Overview:

The entities and attributes of all data tables are detailed online at http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/miomap/about/datastructure.html and links from that URL.

Entity and Attribute Detail Citation:

Carrasco, M. A., B.P. Kraatz, E. B. Davis, and A. D. Barnosky. 2005. Miocene Mammal Mapping Project (MIOMAP). University of California Museum of Paleontology http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/miomap/.

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Distribution_Information:  RETURN TO TOP

Distributor:

Contact_Information:

Contact_Organization_Primary:

Contact_Organization: Museum of Paleontology, University of California

Contact_Position: Anthony D. Barnosky, Marc A. Carrasco

Contact_Address:

Address_Type: Mailing Address

Address: Department of Integrative Biology

Address: University of California

City: Berkeley

State_or_Province: California

Postal_Code: 94720

Country: USA

Contact_Voice_Telephone: (510) 643-6275 (Barnosky)

Contact_Voice_Telephone: (510) 643-6275 (Carrasco)

Contact_Facsimile_Telephone (510) 643-6275

Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: barnosky@berkeley.edu (Barnosky)

Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: carrasco@berkeley.edu (Carrasco)

Hours_of_Service: 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Monday through Friday

Contact_Instructions: Please check the website and follow the instructions there first: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/miomap/

Resource_Description: Late Oligocene and Miocene mammal occurrences

Distribution_Liability:

The compilers or the MIOMAP data and mapping service, or their associated institutions, shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and contained herein. These data and related graphics are not legal documents and are not intended to be used as such. The information contained is dynamic and may change over time, especially in regards to refinements of temporal placement and taxonomic nomenclature. The data are not better than the original sources from which they were obtained. It is the responsibility of the data user to use the data appropriately and within the limits explained in this metadata and for geospatial and paleontological data in general. The related graphics are intended as an aid in geospatial visualization only. The placement of localities in most cases is approximate as estimated from information given in published sources. The University of California gives no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of these data. Users should update and verify the accuracy of the data as appropriate to their uses. It is recommended that data be acquired from the UCMP server directly and not indirectly through other sources which may have changed the data in some way. Although these data and interfaces work successfully on computers that we use (PCs running Windows XP and Internet Explorer and Macs running OSX and Safari), no warranty is expressed or implied for compatibility with particular computer platforms. No warranty is expressed or implied regarding the utility of the data for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. This disclaimer applies both to individual use of the data and aggregate use with other data.

Standard_Order_Process:

Non-digital_Form: None

Fees: None

Ordering_Instructions:

Available only by downloading and printing from the website: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/miomap/ .

Standard_Order_Process:

Digital_Form:

Digital_Transfer_Information:

Format_Name: EXCEL files, MySQL files, Paradox Files, PNG files

Format_Version_Number: Various

File_Decompression_Technique: No compression applied

Digital_Transfer_Option:

Online_Option: Download from the website: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/miomap/ .

Fees: None

Ordering_Instructions: Available for downloading at any time from the website: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/miomap/

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Metadata_Reference_Information:  RETURN TO TOP

Metadata_Date: 20090101 (January 1, 2009)

Metadata_Contact:

Contact_Information:

Contact_Organization_Primary:

Contact_Organization: Museum of Paleontology, University of California

Contact_Position: Anthony D. Barnosky, Marc A. Carrasco

Contact_Address:

Address_Type: Mailing Address

Address: Department of Integrative Biology

Address: University of California

City: Berkeley

State_or_Province: California

Postal_Code: 94720

Country: USA

Contact_Voice_Telephone: (510) 643-6275 (Barnosky)

Contact_Voice_Telephone: (510) 643-6275 (Carrasco)

Contact_Facsimile_Telephone (510) 643-6275

Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: barnosky@berkeley.edu (Barnosky)

Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: carrasco@berkeley.edu (Carrasco)

Hours_of_Service: 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Monday through Friday

Contact_Instructions: Please check the website and follow the instructions there first: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/miomap/

Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata

Metadata_Standard_Version: 20-May-2004 16:35:02 EDT, http://geology.usgs.gov/tools/metadata/tools/doc/ctc/what.shtml

Metadata_Access_Constraints: None.

Metadata_Use_Constraints: None.

Metadata_Security_Information:

Metadata_Security_Classification_System: None.

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Draft version 1/1/09 1:01 AM                        RETURN TO TOP         

Use of this resource in publications should be cited as:
Carrasco, M.A., B.P. Kraatz, E.B. Davis, and A.D. Barnosky. 2005. Miocene Mammal Mapping Project (MIOMAP). University of California Museum of Paleontology http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/miomap/