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A morphological study of living and fossil Quercus (oak) pollen from California using scanning electron microscopy

California has more than 26 oak (Quercus) species, many of which have widespread distributions and different habitats. For example, the California black oaks (Q. kelloggii) are distributed in foothills and low mountains (altitude ~4750 feet), while the Coast live oak (Q. agrifolia; altitude ~830 feet) lives near the coast. Palynologists study the distribution of plant pollen and spores in space and time, and changes in their assemblages reflect changes in regional and local vegetation.

Oak pollen

Oak pollen grain

In the study of past climates, palynologists have used oak pollen as an indicator of relatively warm environments. But in the examples given above, we see that the range of different oak species varies, so the temperatures in their respective habitats must vary as well. If palynologists treat all the oak species the same — as indicators of a "warm environment" — could this lead to wrong interpretations of the environmental conditions? If the answer is yes, why do palynologists still treat all the oak species the same?

This question could be answered if we resolve a basic problem in pollen taxonomy: how to distinguish between the pollen of different oak taxa. All oak pollen have similar characteristics: three colpi (furrows) and a verrucate surface (small surface features under two microns). Even the ratio of length and width of each species overlaps. These nearly uniform morphological features make identifying oak pollen very difficult at the species level, at least using Light Microscopy (LM).

I am studying pollen samples from Clear Lake to understand climate and vegetation change in California during the last interglacial period (~120-80 kyr ago). See earlier blogs: Dispatches from Clear Lake, part 1 and part 2; California pollen taphonomy and pollen trap study in Clear Lake, California. After studying the lower part of a 150-meter-long lake core that includes sediments from the interglacial period I'm interested in, I found two distinct oak pollen numerical peaks. Before categorizing all oak pollen in the samples as "indicators of warm environments," I would like to know which species of oak they represent. Since it's so difficult to detect morphological differences using Light Microscopy, I wondered if I could identify more diagnostic features on pollen grains using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Serendipitously, a paper was published on how to use SEM and quantitative analysis to identify grass pollen at the species level. Like oak pollen, grass pollen is also difficult to differentiate using LM identification. Thinking that the methods described in the article could be applied to oak pollen identification, I decided to take SEM images of California oak pollen to see if a systematic identification method could be developed. Then, I'd use quantitative analysis methods to identify the oak species in my Clear Lake interglacial samples and see if there were particular taxa appearing and/or disappearing in the area during times of climate change.

Last summer (July, 2014) I visited Dr. Luke Mander, author of the grass pollen paper, at the University of Exeter, UK, to investigate the possibility of identifying oak pollen using SEM and computer statistics. In an SEM lab, I took 70 images of pollen from 23 extant California oak taxa and 150 images of fossil California oak pollen.

Winnie with SEM

Winnie using the Scanning Electron Microscope.

A preliminary analysis has already revealed that at least three pollen wall morphotypes, two of which represent habitat-specific oak types, can be recognized in extant California oak species. Most specimens in Type-1 represent shrub oaks, adapted to dry environments. Type-3 pollen neatly matches specific phylogenetic lineages. We were able to assign the fossil oak pollen from Clear Lake to the three categories of extant California oak pollen. Interestingly, the change in oak pollen groups in Clear Lake sediments suggests species replacement during the start of the interglacial period. I have found that more precise and objective identification of oak pollen types is possible using automated digital image analysis algorithms and a larger training set of SEM photographs of pollen from known species, so I will be working on that in the Fall. I hope to amass more detailed vegetation analyses for past periods of climate change.

Pollen wall morphotypes

The three pollen wall morphotypes.

All photos courtesy of Winnie Hsiung.

Building a forest: The adventures continue in the Jose Creek Member

It's April 18, 2015, and I am sitting in a room at the Charles Motel in Truth or Consequences, New Mexico, the same apartment-style room that I have stayed in during the past four years of field work. Time sure has passed by quickly; from my first paleontological dig as an undergraduate at Texas State University-San Marcos under Dr. Gary Upchurch, to my ambitious inaugural self-guided field trip as a first-year graduate student at Berkeley, to last year's even longer field excursion, and finally to this short trip with my advisor, Cindy Looy. What keeps bringing me back to this area is an exceptional Late Cretaceous flora in the Jose Creek Member of the McRae Formation—this flora is the foundation of my dissertation work.

I am interested in the functional diversity (the range of plant ecological strategies) of Cretaceous forests in warm-wet climates. Cretaceous floras often contain a mix of plants that are no longer seen in association today. The Jose Creek assemblage, for example, includes both palms and redwoods. These non-analog communities can be difficult to understand from the perspective of community ecology, because we cannot make inferences about their ecology based on similarities in taxonomic composition with modern floras. The difficulty of understanding past communities is compounded by the paucity of fossil deposits preserving a "snapshot" of a forest in relative growth position. This is precisely why the Jose Creek deposit is so unique—it contains a flora preserved in a volcanic ash airfall. During my 2013 field season, we traced a single-horizon ash layer for approximately 1.2 km (see previous blog). Such an extensive deposit makes reconstruction of the forest, including lateral variation in forest structure, possible. Because the volcanic ashes are fine-grained and deposited rapidly, the plant parts (leaves, fruits, flowers, seeds, cones, etc.) are very well preserved. I am using morphological features of these plant fossils—and an explicit ecological and spatial sampling scheme—to reconstruct the forest. My ultimate goal is to evaluate the ecological diversity of the community, and to understand how forests in warm-wet climates have changed since the Late Cretaceous.

Leaf specimens and Dori

Assorted leaf specimens found at the Jose Creek site, and Dori, happy to have found a cone attached to conifer foliage. Leaf photos by Dori Contreras; photo of Dori by Stephanie Ranks.

This is what brings me to Truth or Consequences this April—a continuation of my quest to describe this incredible flora. This trip is a short one—only four days—with two simple missions: (1) "cherry picking" well-preserved leaf specimens to use for trait measurements (for inferences of their ecology), and (2) hunting for cones to finish a whole-plant description of an extinct redwood that is abundant in the deposit.

Last June's trip (2014) was more intensive. I drove to New Mexico with two undergraduates—James Buckel and Negin Sarami—and recent IB graduate/Looy Lab veteran, Stephanie Ranks. We spent two weeks working at the site, establishing new collecting quarries and re-sampling the 12 small exploratory quarries from the previous year, effectively doubling their size. All in all, we have now established 17 quarries that span the length of the exposure! We successfully employed a new data collection method in the field, which had several advantages over the previous year. During the 2013 collecting trip, we collected and brought back to the UCMP all of the specimens excavated from each quarry. This generated a large amount of material very quickly—the maximum that our extra-long SUV could carry. In contrast, during the 2014 trip we looked at all our excavated specimens, comparing them with a leaf morphotype guidebook of over 120 different leaf types that I created from the previous collections. Using the book as a guide, we were able to record the number of occurrences of each morphotype, as well as their percent cover of the rock surfaces, without having to bring every specimen back to the museum. Of course, we did collect the specimens that were very well-preserved or that represented new morphotypes. By adopting this method in the field, we were able to collect far more data than would have been possible by only making collections and still bring back a full load of really nice specimens to the museum.

Negin wrapping and labeling

Negin wrapping and labeling fossils to take back to UCMP. Photo by Dori Contreras.

Dori, Stephanie, and James

The field crew: Dori, Stephanie, and James (Negin not pictured). Photo by CJ at the Charles Motel and Hot Springs.

The flora has proven to be extremely diverse, with new morphotypes being found every day. The variation in morphotype composition from quarry to quarry also suggests a very structurally diverse flora. This is an incredible site to work, never a dull moment! I am really looking forward to the next big trip, and consider myself extremely lucky to receive the support of so many organizations, especially the UCMP and its amazing community of researchers, staff, and donors. Now, back to the field site before I lose any more daylight—Cindy and I still have a day of "wow" moments ahead of us before we return to Berkeley!

Organizations that have generously supported this work include:
— UCMP Graduate Student Award, University of California Museum of Paleontology, 2013 and 2014
— Geological Society of America Graduate Student Research Grant, 2014
— Integrative Biology Graduate Research Fund, 2014
— Sigma Xi Grants-in-Aid of Research, UC-Berkeley Chapter, 2014
— Mid-American Paleontological Society (MAPS) Outstanding Student Research Award, 2013
— GRAC Research Funds, UC-Berkeley Integrative Biology Department, 2013

Do green tide algae reproduce all year?

Occurrences of green tides have been on the rise in recent years worldwide. The most impressive have been reported off the coast of China in the Yellow Sea. In August 2014, the Monterey Bay area experienced a green tide that resulted in the accumulation of the macroalgae, Ulva, on its beaches. Algal blooms often make the headlines in spring and summer yet they are not a new phenomenon. In fact, toxic algal blooms may have been responsible for bird, fish and marine mammal die-offs recorded in the fossil records of Chile's Neogene and Gulf Coastal Florida's Pliocene. Blooms are typically considered to be an indication of decreased ocean health and pollution but there are many other factors that contribute to algal blooms. While Ulva itself doesn't produce toxic chemicals as it grows, the bacteria that decompose the alga once it begins to die can suck the oxygen from the surrounding seawater, suffocating other marine life.

Environmental factors necessary to generate an algal bloom include:

— Sunlight
— High nutrients
— Calm water
— Few grazers or predators
— Temperature
— Salinity

I've been interested in learning more about why we see green tides when we do. To do this, I've been focusing on the microscopic reproductive stages of the green-tide-forming algae, Ulva. In July 2014 I began collecting two liters of seawater every month from San Francisco Bay. I divide the water into culture flasks, add nutrients important to algal growth—such as nitrate, phosphate, ammonium, trace metals and vitamins—and culture it in environmental chambers on the UC Berkeley campus. These chambers are set to simulate summer conditions (16°C, 12-hour days) and every week I replace the seawater with fresh nutrient-enriched seawater. After four weeks I find young Ulva blades and tubes growing on the bottom of my culture flasks. Since I know the volume of the water I originally put into the flasks, I can estimate the number of propagules per liter that were present at the time of collection. I've been repeating this sampling at an additional four locations within San Francisco Bay once every season to estimate variation in spatial distribution of these reproductive stages.

Collecting water samples

I collect monthly water samples from the San Francisco Bay at the Romberg Tiburon Center. Each season I visit four additional locations within the bay to estimate spatial variation in reproductive stage abundances.

Every cell in adult Ulva (blade or tube) has the potential to become reproductive, releasing up to 16 swimming spores from each cell. The cells along the margins of the blades usually become reproductive first; you can see the difference in color between the reproductive cells and vegetative cells in the image at right, below.

Left: These algae (<1cm) grew from reproductive cells of Ulva, also known as sea lettuce. Right: There is a color difference between reproductive and vegetative cells in Ulva. The former are the lighter ones along the margins.

Left: These algae (<1cm) grew from reproductive cells of Ulva, also known as sea lettuce. Right: There is a color difference between reproductive and vegetative cells in Ulva. The former are the lighter ones along the margins.[/caption] Along with the help of some UC Berkeley undergraduates, I am also tracking the settlement of young Ulva at my field site in Tiburon. We have attached settling plates made of resin to rocks in the intertidal zone near the Romberg Tiburon Center. These settling plates are submerged at high tide and exposed at low tide. Each month we return to the intertidal at low tide to collect the plates covered in algae and replace them with sterilized plates. Once back at the lab we use a dissecting microscope to estimate the amount of young Ulva growing on the plates. Now we are working on comparing the amount of young Ulva that grows in the cultures to the patterns of young Ulva we are seeing on the settling plates.

[caption id="attachment_3955" align="aligncenter" width="470"]Algae established on a settling plate A quantity of algae has established itself on this settling plate.

All photos courtesy of Rosemary Romero.

Southern California Spring Break 2015 field trip

Annual field trips used to be something of a tradition at UCMP, but that tradition faded once the Department of Paleontology merged with other units to become the Department of Integrative Biology in 1989. In recent years, former UCMP Director Jere Lipps organized and led three field trips: Baja in 2001, southern California in 2008, and Oregon in 2009. And now two of UCMP’s newest curators, Assistant Professors Seth Finnegan and Cindy Looy, are trying to revive the annual field trip tradition. Seth organized and led a trip to the Kettleman Hills and Death Valley in 2014, and this year, he and Cindy led one to southern California during Spring Break, March 21-28.

On March 21, Seth, Cindy, three UCMP staff (Lisa White, Dave Smith, and Erica Clites), and 11 grad students headed south from Berkeley, with their first stop being a locality south of Soledad along Arroyo Seco Canyon in Monterey County. Here, the group had their first look at the rocks of the extensive Miocene Monterey Formation and found pea crabs, bivalves, and brachiopods. The group would visit more exposures of the Monterey Formation along the California coast — at Gaviota State Park and El Capitan State Beach, west of Santa Barbara — and even as far south as Newport Bay.

Crabs and scallops

Left: Small crab fossils were fairly abundant at the first locality in the Monterey Formation, Arroyo Seco Canyon. Photo by Camilla Souto. Right: Bivalves, such as these scallops, were found at a second locality about a mile away. Photo by Erica Clites.

Gaviota and strike-dip

Top: The strongly dipping exposures of the Monterey Formation at Gaviota State Park, about 33 miles west of Santa Barbara. Bottom: Lisa White (center) takes a strike and dip reading before the students begin measuring a stratigraphic section at the park. Both photos by Camilla Souto.

El Capitan and alga

At both Gaviota State Park and El Capitan State Beach (left), the group found fossils, such as this alga (right), in the Monterey Formation exposures. El Capitan photo by Dave Smith; alga photo by Camilla Souto.

At Piru Gorge, just off I-5 south of Tejon Pass, an attempt was made to relocate some plant localities reported by UCMP alum Daniel Axelrod (A.B., 1933; M.A., 1936; Ph.D., 1938), but without success. East of the gorge and the highway, some road cuts exhibiting nice geological features (cross bedding, ripple marks, etc.) were examined.

Piru Gorge and geology

Top: In Piru Gorge, the group sets off in search of fossil plant localities. Photo by Erica Clites. Bottom: West of Piru Gorge, Caitlin Boas, Seth Finnegan, and Cindy Looy admire the geological features exhibited in a road cut. Photo by Dave Smith.

Jere Lipps — current Director of The Cooper Center, the fossil repository for Orange County — gave the group a tour of the Cooper facility. Afterwards, Jere took the group to a number of interesting localities in the Newport Bay area, including a visit to the Upper Newport Bay Nature Preserve with outstanding views of marine terraces. At the end of the day, Jere and Susie Lipps had the group to their home for a barbecue.

Cooper Center and Newport Bay

Top: Jere Lipps (in all black) gives the group a tour of The Cooper Center. Bottom: Examining another Monterey Formation exposure on the east side of Newport Bay. Note the plastic sheeting draped across the bluff in an attempt to slow erosion. Both photos by Dave Smith.

Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, east of San Diego, was the next stop. The group spent two days looking at the geology exposed at Split Mountain and along Fish Creek Wash in the southeastern corner of the park. The rocks along the wash told some very interesting stories. Moving from east to west, the group examined cobble-filled layers believed to have been deposited by flash floods. Farther on, the rocks showed where an underwater landslide buckled unlithified ocean sediments. Close to the western end of Split Mountain, a series of turbidites — underwater sediment flows that result from slope failures at shelf margins or the distal edges of large river deltas — were observed. Even farther west down the wash, many layers of nearly equal thickness were suggestive of sands deposited out on a vast river delta of shallow slope.

Fold and camp at dawn

Top: Dori and Natalia take a closer look at folded marine sediments, thought to be the result of an underwater landslide hitting the ocean floor nearby. The toe of the unstratified landslide deposit can be seen at the far right. Bottom: A new day dawns at the group’s camp in Fish Creek Wash. Both photos by Dave Smith.

From Anza, the group headed to the Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge on the southeast shore of the Salton Sea. Here the group had an initial look at the lake’s beaches covered with dead barnacles and the bones of fish and birds. After a stop to admire some mud volcanoes near one of the 11 geothermal power plants located around the southern end of the Salton Sea, the group headed to the hills above Mecca at the north end of the lake. The group spent its final night in Painted Canyon after taking a hike through it and an adjoining slot canyon.

Salton Sea and mud volcanoes

Top: The shore of the Salton Sea, with a geothermal power plant visible in the distance. Bottom: Ash studies a mud volcano located near one of the geothermal plants. Both photos by Dave Smith.

Painted Canyon and Anza-Borrego sunset

Top: Caitlin, Ash, Dori, Cindy, and Jeff in Painted Canyon. Bottom: A last look across the hills south of Wind Caves in Anza-Borrego Desert State Park. Both photos by Camilla Souto.

After a morning look at some roadside exposures of delta deposits, the group made the long drive back to Berkeley. All participants thoroughly enjoyed the trip and Seth and Cindy are already pondering where to go next year. Will it be the Great Basin? Channel Islands? Italy anyone?

The Bearded Lady Project comes to the UCMP

The Bearded Lady Project: Changing the Face of Science came to the UCMP in February, one of many stops in a photographic journey made by documentary film makers seeking to educate the public on gender inequities in geoscience fields, particularly in paleontology. Women of the UCMP sat for portraits that will become part of a photography series intended to celebrate adventurous women who are true pioneers in the fields. See if you can recognize some of your favorite women of the UCMP!

Bearded UCMP

Having trouble recognizing anyone? In the back row are, from the left, Jessica Bean, Emily Orezechowski, Lucy Chang, Renske Kirchholtes, Emily Lindsey, Erica Clites, Whitney Reiner, Jenna Judge (with head turned), Caitlin Boas, Diane Erwin, Carole Hickman, and Allison Stegner. In front are, from the left, Winnie Hsiung, Camilla Souto, Rosemary Romero, Liz Ferrer, Dori Contreras, Cindy Looy, Tesla Monson, Tripti Bhattacharya, Lisa White, Natalia Villavicencio, and Sarah ElShafie. Just outside the frame of this photo was Savannah Blake. Photo by Dave Smith.

Fossils in the Campanile? It’s true!


If you have taken the elevator to the top of Sather Tower, aka the Campanile, perhaps you've heard that some of the floors of the tower are filled with fossils. This is not a campus myth, it's fact!

The Campanile is celebrating its 100th anniversary this year and its very first occupants — moving in before the tower was even completed — were fossils. At that time, the museum and Department of Paleontology were in Bacon Hall, just east of the Campanile, so as a storage facility, the tower was conveniently located. Although the museum has moved several times over the past century, the fossils in the Campanile have not.

Some of the first fossils to be moved into the tower were vertebrate bones from John C. Merriam's excavations at the Rancho La Brea tar pits. These bones, collected prior to 1914, occupy four of the five floors devoted to fossil storage. But the Campanile houses several other collections too. There are bones collected in the 1930s from asphalt deposits in McKittrick (about halfway between San Luis Obispo and Bakersfield) and nearby Maricopa; mammoth bones, teeth, tusks, and other miscellaneous Pleistocene fossils; modern whale bones; a few blocks containing ribs of the plesiosaur Hydrotherosaurus alexandrae; crates containing plaster casts of dinosaur footprints and trackways that were made by Sam Welles while doing field work in the Kayenta Formation of Arizona; petrified wood from the Petrified Forest; fossil plants; invertebrate fossils, including collections moved to the Campanile from McCone Hall and some from Triassic rocks in Nevada; Upper Cretaceous leaves from Bryce Canyon, Utah; oil company collections of microfossils (bulk samples) and invertebrates; casts of mastodont skulls; an ichthyosaur skull; some sculptural reconstructions (including a glyptodont); and cases of reprints. A conservative estimate of the number of fossils stored in the Campanile, excluding the microfossils, is 300,000.

Mark and Leslea

Mark Goodwin and Leslea Hlusko with drawers of vertebrate fossils collected in the 1930s from the McKittrick asphalt deposits. As Assistant Director for Collections and Research, Mark manages all the UCMP collections, including these in the Campanile. Leslea is a UCMP Curator and Associate Professor in the Department of Integrative Biology; her lab has projects underway that involve some of the Campanile fossils. Photo by Kevin Ho Nguyen.

During this year-long celebration of the Campanile, it is only fitting that the fossils housed there receive some attention too. We will periodically post blogs throughout the year to discuss some of the ongoing research projects that involve the Campanile's fossils. For instance, UCMP Curator and Associate Professor of Integrative Biology Leslea Hlusko and her lab have two projects underway and Eric Holt, an undergrad in Tony Barnosky's lab, is looking at wolf morphometrics. And back in September we announced the grant award from the Institute of Museum and Library Services to curate the Campanile's McKittrick fossils. To date, more than 2,500 specimens have been cleaned and cataloged, and more than 500 images of 273 specimens have been added to CalPhotos.

Wolf skulls

Just a few of the Canis dirus (dire wolf) skulls from the Rancho La Brea tar pits housed in the Campanile. Photo by Kevin Ho Nguyen.

Stay tuned for more about the Campanile's fossil treasures!

UCMP participates in the Bay Area Science Festival for fourth straight year

On November 1, UCMP participated in Discovery Days at AT&T Park, the closing event of the annual Bay Area Science Festival. The museum has been a Science@Cal exhibitor at the Festival for four years running. This year, over 30,000 people enjoyed 200 free activities and exhibits at the Festival, a “science extravaganza.” The Festival is meant to entertain and inspire; it’s where visitors can unleash their inner scientist.

BASF 2014 photo

Museum Scientist Erica Clites and undergraduate volunteer Dianne Quiroz (pictured) staffed the UCMP table during Discovery Days at AT&T Park. Photo by Erica Clites.

UCMP curator and Integrative Biology professor keeps attention focused on climate change and mass extinction

On November 30, the Smithsonian Channel will air the film Mass Extinction: Life at the Brink featuring UC Berkeley researchers Walter and Luis Alvarez, as well as UCMP’s Tony Barnosky; and Stanford University’s Elizabeth Hadly and Jon Payne. The film describes what we know about the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, how we know it, and how the Cretaceous-Paleogene and end-Permian mass extinctions relate to our present extinction crisis. Learn more at and

Barnosky screen capture

Tony Barnosky in the HHMI video “Anthony Barnosky and Kaitlin Maguire Measure Mammal Extinctions at the John Day Fossil Beds.” Screen capture from the BioInteractive website.

Watch this week (November 24) for a news release about Tony Barnosky and his work regarding mass extinctions.

See Tony’s recent blog entitled “Preventing the Sixth Mass Extinction Requires Dealing With Climate Change” on The Huffington Post website.

Also see two free educational videos produced by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) that are available on HHMI’s BioInteractive website as well as YouTube. One features Barnosky and UCMP alum Kaitlin Maguire measuring mammal extinctions in Oregon’s John Day Fossil Beds, and in the other, Stanford’s Elizabeth Hadly and biologist Sean Carroll track the effects of climate change in Yellowstone National Park.

• Measuring mammal extinctions at John Day: BioInteractive / YouTube

• Tracking climate change in Yellowstone: BioInteractive / YouTube

UCMP expertise tapped for new KQED e-book series on climate change

ebook selectionKQED partnered with UCMP and Stanford University’s Precourt Institute for Energy to produce a four-part e-book series entitled Clue into Climate. Lisa White, UCMP’s Assistant Director for Education and Public Programs, says “These new e-books bring climate research to life and create greater access to information about climate and global environmental change in an easy to understand package.”

The e-books explore the topic through a blend of high-quality media, interactive graphics and real-world examples of the effects of climate change. Primarily developed for middle- and high-school students—but also relevant for lifelong learners—the series explores the causes of climate change, its impacts on freshwater and ecosystems, and innovative strategies for curbing and adapting to change.

Find links to download all four e-books on the KQED Education site.

UCMP expands its Homecoming Weekend program

In previous years, UCMP’s involvement with UC Berkeley’s Homecoming Weekend was limited to a single tour of the collections (normally closed to the public), but this year, the museum decided to expand on that and offer something a little different for its Friends and donors.

On Friday, October 10, Assistant Director for Collections and Research Mark Goodwin started things off with his annual tour of the collections, but that was followed by an afternoon lecture by UCMP Curator and Integrative Biology Professor Tony Barnosky on “Dodging Extinction,” based on his new book of the same name. Barnosky’s book addresses the looming Sixth Mass Extinction and what we can do to prevent it.

The big weekend event was an invitation-only “Night at the Museum” for Friends and donors organized by Assistant Director for Education and Outreach Lisa White. Guests enjoyed food, wine, and cocktails (with such names as “Mammoth Mojito” and “The Trilobite”) while listening to introductory comments by UCMP Director Charles Marshall, Vice Chancellor for Research Graham Fleming, and Dean of the College of Letters & Science G. Steven Martin in the Valley Life Sciences Building’s Wallace Atrium.

The guests were split into smaller groups and led into the museum’s collections where a number of stations were set up, each highlighting the research of select UCMP students, staff, and Curators. The plan was for each group to spend about eight minutes at each station before moving on to the next, but they became so absorbed with the presentations that they were reluctant to leave; therefore, the time spent at each station was extended to about 15 minutes. Because of this, the event, which should have ended shortly after 8:00, ran closer to 9:30 pm. But as far as we could tell, our guests thoroughly enjoyed themselves and UCMP intends to sponsor more special events during future Homecoming Weekends at Cal.

A few photos from the evening’s special event, all taken by Lucy Chang, follow.


UCMP Director Charles Marshall (beneath the T. rex’s ribcage) addresses the gathered guests and members of the UCMP community.


Grad student Jeff Benca explains how he’s looking at modern plants and pollen to answer questions about the end-Permian extinction, the largest mass extinction in the Earth’s history.


Assistant Director for Collections and Research Mark Goodwin discusses bone structure and growth in the horns and skull of Triceratops.


Recent graduate Sarah Tulga describes her work with fossil vertebrates that lived alongside the earliest dinosaurs in the Triassic period.


Grad student Sara ElShafie is interested in documenting changes in the growth rates of both extinct and living herpetofaunas (reptiles & amphibians) in response to climate change.


Grad student Lindsey Dougherty explains her work with Ctenoides ales, the so-called “disco clam.” See the blog post about Lindsey and the clam’s flashing behavior.

Diane and Zixiang

On the left, Senior Museum Scientist Diane Erwin talks about a UCMP collection of fossil insects. At right, first-year grad student Zixiang Zhang discusses the differences between the skulls of saber-toothed cats and modern lions.