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Archive for the ‘Global warming’ Category.

Solutions to climate change inspire French film

Tony and Liz by billboard advertising the movie Demain, in Paris.

Tony and Liz by a billboard advertising the movie Demain, in Paris.

In December 2015 UCMP faculty curator Tony Barnosky and Stanford paleoecologist Liz Hadly attended The United Nations Conference on Climate Change to premiere a movie opening in Paris. The movie, Demain, was inspired by the 21-authored study that produced a 2012 Nature paper on tipping points. The film opens with Tony and Liz summarizing global change issues facing the world today.

Tony states, "the movie is all about solutions and is very uplifting." It features solutions being implemented in San Francisco and Oakland, in addition to many other places around the world. It was produced by and stars Mélanie Laurent, a well-known French actress, and Cyril Dion. The movie is getting rave reviews in Europe and the English version Tomorrow (see video) is anticipated to be released in the USA in the spring.

Tony and Liz (far left) with cast members of the film, Demain.

Tony and Liz (far left) with cast members of the film, Demain.

The Anthropocene has come of age

industryResearch by Faculty Curator and Professor Tony Barnosky and the Anthropocene Working Group continues to support the strong need for designating a distinct geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Landscape-altering human activities leave behind distinctive evidence (plastics, aluminum, concrete, black carbon, among others) in the sedimentary record. The group has received widespread media attention and recent articles in the New York Times, Los Angeles Times, and Washington Post demonstrate the extent to which interested in topic crosses academic and non-academic boundaries.

On a related topic Tony is the co-author on a research article by Ceballos et al, 2015, on the sixth mass extinction, and it was the #3 most popular academic paper (and shared and read outside and within academia) published in 2015 according to Almetrics.  It was also #15 in the top 100 Science papers listed in Discover Magazine.

 

Five Climate Tipping Points We've Already Seen, and One We're Hoping For

forestfireThis week is Climate Week in New York, when President Obama, Pope Francis, and many other world leaders converge to continue hammering out commitments intended to limit global warming to 2 degrees C or less, to be presented at the make-or-break COP21 climate meetings in Paris in early December.

The commitments are not there yet--so far those on the table would allow enough greenhouse gas emissions to raise temperature 3 degrees C or more. But staying below 2 degrees is critically important, for we already are seeing climate-triggered problems arise, even though global temperature has only risen less than one degree (0.9 degree C) above what used to be normal, and indeed what human civilization evolved in.

Read the rest at Huff Post Science Blog

New research shows how mammals became smaller in response to dramatic climate warming

Lead author Brian Rankin holds jaws of two species of 50 million year old horses.  Measurements of their teeth were used to study how global change can affect how mammals evolve.

Lead author Brian Rankin holds jaws of two species of 50 million year old horses. Measurements of their teeth were used to study how global change can affect how mammals evolve.

Fifty-six million years ago the Earth underwent a dramatic warming event, with temperatures increasing by as much as 7° Celsius over a span of just 100,000 years. Many mammals responded to this temperature increase by becoming much smaller. How these changes happened, however, is poorly understood. Identifying and measuring the mechanisms that drove these changes was the focus of a new study by University of California Museum of Paleontology researchers Brian Rankin and Pat Holroyd, and colleagues from University of Calgary and Western University of Health Sciences.

Lead author Brian Rankin, the newest postdoctoral scholar of University of California Museum of Paleontology, explains "When temperatures get warmer, we see a wide range of mammals become smaller. Determining what evolutionary processes are responsible for these changes and how much each contribute to this pattern has been very uncertain. We chose the evolution of mammals at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary because it is a time of dramatic global warming when many different types of animals became dwarfed and the fossil record of this time is incredibly rich."

In a new paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, these researchers present a new method to separate and quantify body size change due to selective extinction vs. change within lineages to determine which is the most important way in which evolution takes place during times of global warming. They found that that some evolutionary mechanisms (i.e., species selection) might act differently during global warming events, favoring mammals that increase in size rather than decrease. The methods developed in the paper can now be broadly applied to look at evolutionary change during other times of global change.

Barnosky meets with Governor Jerry Brown and a United Nations delegation to discuss climate change

On June 15, UCMP Curator and Integrative Biology Professor Tony Barnosky met with Governor Jerry Brown, Executive Secretary of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Christiana Figueres, and California climatologists at the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History to discuss global warming and the consequences of failing to deal with it.

At a press conference following the meeting, Brown expressed his desire to reduce California’s greenhouse gas emissions by 40 per cent over the next 15 years and spoke of legislation mandating that 50 per cent of the State’s electricity come from renewable sources by 2050.

Brown et al

Behind Governor Brown (at the podium) are (from left) Christiana Figueres, Liz Hadley, and Tony Barnosky. Photo courtesy of Tony Barnosky.

At the end of November, representatives from some 195 countries will gather in Paris for a UN Climate Change Conference in the hope of forging international agreements to limit greenhouse gases and combat climate change.

See past blog posts dealing with Tony’s involvement with climate change issues.

UCMP curator and Integrative Biology professor keeps attention focused on climate change and mass extinction

On November 30, the Smithsonian Channel will air the film Mass Extinction: Life at the Brink featuring UC Berkeley researchers Walter and Luis Alvarez, as well as UCMP’s Tony Barnosky; and Stanford University’s Elizabeth Hadly and Jon Payne. The film describes what we know about the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, how we know it, and how the Cretaceous-Paleogene and end-Permian mass extinctions relate to our present extinction crisis. Learn more at smithsonianchannel.com and tangledbankstudios.org.

Barnosky screen capture

Tony Barnosky in the HHMI video “Anthony Barnosky and Kaitlin Maguire Measure Mammal Extinctions at the John Day Fossil Beds.” Screen capture from the hhmi.org BioInteractive website.

Watch newscenter.berkeley.edu this week (November 24) for a news release about Tony Barnosky and his work regarding mass extinctions.

See Tony’s recent blog entitled “Preventing the Sixth Mass Extinction Requires Dealing With Climate Change” on The Huffington Post website.

Also see two free educational videos produced by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) that are available on HHMI’s BioInteractive website as well as YouTube. One features Barnosky and UCMP alum Kaitlin Maguire measuring mammal extinctions in Oregon’s John Day Fossil Beds, and in the other, Stanford’s Elizabeth Hadly and biologist Sean Carroll track the effects of climate change in Yellowstone National Park.

• Measuring mammal extinctions at John Day: BioInteractive / YouTube

• Tracking climate change in Yellowstone: BioInteractive / YouTube

Global change consensus statement having a global impact

Page from consensus statementOver a year ago in a May 30, 2013, blog post, we reported on Professor of Integrative Biology and UCMP curator Tony Barnosky’s presentation to Governor Jerry Brown of a statement about global environmental problems and what people must do to ensure the health of the planet. That statement was written at Brown’s request after the Governor had heard about a Nature paper that Barnosky had coauthored with his wife, Stanford professor of Biology and UCMP research associate Elizabeth Hadly, and several other scientists in June 2012 (Nature 486:52-58). Brown wanted to use the statement as a powerful tool with which to help him shape environmental policy, and it has done that. Furthermore, the statement which has now been endorsed by over 3,300 people (mostly researchers) around the world, has influenced environmental policy well beyond California’s borders. Read the complete statement on the ConsensusForAction website.

Governor Brown presented copies of the statement to President Obama and Chinese President Xi Jinping. Since then, California and China have agreed to jointly develop green technologies and to reduce greenhouse gases. California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia have signed a pact to use ideas set forth in the statement as the basis for making energy and environmental decisions. The statement has been translated into several other languages and has found its way into the hands of politicians around the globe. Members of Nepal’s parliament have signed the statement and intend to address climate change when writing a draft for their new constitution. As Hadly put it, “We never could have guessed the reach this paper has had.”

In the July 24, 2014, issue of Nature (Nature 511:402-404), a news feature praises the work of “information advocates” Barnosky and Hadly.

Barnosky interviewed about climate change

global changeTony Barnosky, UCMP Curator and Professor of Integrative Biology, discussed a consensus statement to world leaders regarding global change, Maintaining Humanity's Life Support Systems in the 21st Century, this past week in an interview by KQED Science Editor Craig Miller.

Barnosky has been working with the California Office of the Governor to promote science-based solutions to global change problems. With 15 other global change scientists he developed the scientific consensus statement, which has now found its way into a number of state, national, and international discussions about environmental solutions. Since the release of the statement in May, more than 1,000 scientists around the world have endorsed it. Join the scientists and add your name as an endorser of the statement.

Barnosky presents statement on global environmental problems to Governor Brown

When California governor Jerry Brown challenged scientists to put global change issues into terms that political leaders can understand UCMP's Tony Barnosky stepped up. On May 23 Barnosky and colleagues presented a 30-page statement entitled Maintaining Humanity’s Life Support Systems in the 21st Century to the governor. It's a strong statement about global environmental problems and what people must do to insure the future health of the planet with signatories from 44 countries including two Nobel laureates, 33 members of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and members of other nations' scientific academies.

 

Read more about Barnosky and other scientists' presentation to the governor at the UC Berkeley News Center.

 

Read the scientific consensus statement at the Millenium Alliance for Humanity & the Biosphere website.

Barnosky on Earth's tipping points in Nature

Twenty-two scientists including lead author Tony Barnosky urge us to understand the danger of global environmental tipping points in their review paper in the June 7 issue of Nature. They examine data from past global environmental changes, compare it to how humans are changing the planet today, and discuss what that could mean for our future. They conclude that if we continue at our current rates of environmental destruction and resource use there will be dramatic impacts on the quality of life for coming generations.

For more information on the paper, including a video interview with Barnosky and a summary of how this research ties to The Berkeley Initiative in Global Change Biology, read the full press release at the UC Berkeley News Center.